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О Стереотипах и Культуре

Недавно наткнулся в Интернете на любопытную стаью, в которой автор написал о культуре, как о  наборе  стереотипов.


Искренне и серьезно. В связи с этим у меня встал вопрос: а что вообще такое стереотип? Всегда считалось, что от стереотипов следует избавляться, а вот в действительности появляются всякие  "тупые  американцы, пьяницы русские, спекулянты поляки, развратники французы..." - список продолжайте сами.


Любая страна - это целый социальный слой. Мне кажется, что культурное наследие, и культура - это несколько разные понятия. Культурное наследие - оно действительно общее для всех, и часто не имеет национального колорита - потому что говорит на языке, общем для всех - ведь как бы ни относился американец к быту - он так же переживает смерть близких, так же радуется солнцу и слушает прибой... 


Но я лично против стереотипов, которые пытаются возвысить свою национальную культуру на фоне других. (как раз те, что из серии "русские - пьяницы, американцы - тупые"). Но национальные культуры тоже имеют место быть. И часто из-за различий этих культур (но различие еще не значит, что одна культура лучше другой) возникает непонимание и рисуются стереотипы.


Ну не готовят американцы домашнюю еду, когда приглашают гостей. А русские готовят. И оба уклада считают другой неправильным - американцы считают, что мы впустую тратим массу времени, которое можно было бы потратить на себя, на близких, на дела и т.д., а мы считаем, что американцы ленивые и нехозяйственные. И можно придумать стереотип, а можно найти способ понять и принять эту часть национальной культуры как данность. 


Второе сложнее - потому что нужно пытаться смотреть на жизнь чужими глазами, а не своими привычками. Первое проще, но отдает тем самым высокомерием и самолюбованием - да что с них взять, они нехозяйственные и тупыыые, поэтому и дома не готовят, и цвет обоев заказывают у дизайнера, и платят адвокатам, хотя можно самим все бумажки собрать... 


И используя этот стереотип - ты вроде как не ждешь от американца больше, чем он готов тебе дать, не обидишься и не удивишься в случае возникновения подобной ситуации. Но, с другой стороны, ты и не поймешь истинных его мотивов.


Вопрос в том, насколько глубоко лично тебе необходимо знать чужую культуру - именно как свод обычаев, как характер народа. Можно ограничиться стереотипами, а можно дойти до их истоков.

Стереотипы и национальные традиции  - разные вещи, причем, как правило, различающиеся традиции и порождают (у людей недалеких) стереотипы по модели "они не такие как мы, значит, они варвары". Это еще с древних греков повелось. Да и "немцами" в России звали "говорящих не по-нашему", "немых"... 


Меня удивляет, когда некоторые годами работают с иностранцами и не стремяться понять логику их мышления и поступков. А тем, кто переезжает в другие страны на ПМЖ с девизом "пусть лучше мир прогнется под нас" , лучше бы вообще оставаться дома.  Кстати, к слову о русских , нередко встречаешся  с ситуациями, когда русский ругает "понаехавших чурок", не идеально говорящих по-русски, но сам выехав  в США, живя там  годами,  продолжает работать у русских же, ходит в русские магазины, читает только по-русски, смотрит только русское TV и по-английски за все годы выучил с десяток слов. Без шуток: американским полицейским, работающим в районах компактного проживания эмигрантов из России приходится учить русский ;) ...


Вообщем, как говорится, отдельная тема для разговора...


Global warming

Регулярно слушаю московское радио. В этом году (с 1 Янв. 2015 и по сегодня, 19 Февр.) погода на среднем западе США холоднее чем в Москве.

Global Warming My Ass...!

At least 12 dead in Islamist terror attack at satirical French publication

Published January 07, 2015 | FoxNews.com

Three black-clad gunmen shouting "Allahu Akbar!" stormed the Paris offices of a satirical publication known for lampooning Islam Wednesday, killing 12, including its editor, three political cartoonists and a police officer whose cold-blooded murder at close range was captured on a disturbing video.

The masked, Kalashnikov-toting shooters moved with military precision, and then escaped following the 11:30 a.m. attack at Charlie Hebdo, the publication known for challenging Muslim terrorists with a 2011 caricature of Prophet Muhammed on its cover and which recently tweeted a cartoon of Islamic State leader Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi, and were being sought.

“We’ve avenged the honor of the prophet!” the killers shouted, according to witnesses who spoke to Sky News. Other witnesses said the men shouted "Allahu Akbar," Arabic for "God is great." The gunmen spoke French without any accent, according to Le Monde.

As the killers fled, they shot at arriving policemen. Video, believed to be cellphone footage, quickly emerged of the killers men getting out of a car and shooting a prone police officer in the head in cold blood as he begged for his life on the sidewalk. It was not clear if the shocking execution of the police officer took place before or after the raid on the office..

French President Francois Hollande branded the attack an act of terrorism and claimed that several other potential terror attacks had been thwarted "in recent weeks." Hollande added that the publication had been threatened in the past and was already under police protection and surveillance.

“This is a terrorist attack, there is no doubt about it,” Hollande told reporters.

Officials said the men walked into the ground floor of the publication's offices and began shooting before making their way up to the first floor. Cartoonist Corine Rey, aka “Coco,” told the weekly Humanité that she let the men inside the building of Charlie Hebdo after being ordered at gunpoint.

“They spoke perfect French," said Rey, who said the rampage lased about five minutes. "They said they were Al Qaeda.”

Witnesses said the attack was carried out commando-style, with the gunmen demanding the names of those they encountered, indicating that they had specific targets in mind.

“It was a real butchery,” Rocco Contento, a spokesman for the Unité police union, told The Guardian.

Benoit Bringer, a journalist from the agency Premieres Lignes Tele, whose offices are next door, told the Telegraph he took refuge on the building's roof.

"Three policemen arrived by push bike, but they left naturally as the attackers were armed," he said.

The publication's offices are in the trendy 11th arrondissement of Paris, which includes posh restaurants and retail shops. It is one of the most densely populated districts in all of Europe and is home to a large, mostly Algerian, Muslim community. Schools in the area were closed and newspaper offices, shopping centers, museums and stations were placed under police protection.

Charlie Hebdo first gained notoriety in 2006, when it reprinted a dozen cartoons of the Prophet Mohammed that appeared in Danish daily Jyllands-Posten, in defiance of Islam's forbidding of any image attempting to portray its most important prophet. Its offices were firebombed in 2011 after a spoof issue featuring a caricature of the Prophet Muhammad on its cover. Nearly a year later, the magazine published crude Muhammad caricatures, drawing denunciations around the Muslim world. One of the dead in Wednesday's attack was satirical cartoonist Stephane Charbonnier, the publication's editorial director and the artist behind the caricatures that offended jihadists. He was the subject of a fatwah, and there is a Facebook page called "Execute Stephane Charbonnier."

Charlie Hebdo’s editor-in-chief, Gérard Biard, escaped the attack because he was in London. He expressed his shock and said the magazine had had no specific threats of violence.

Agnes Thibault-Lecuivre, spokeswoman for the Paris prosecutor, told The Associated Press another cartoonist named Jean Cabut, known by the pen name Cabu was killed. Other reports said cartoonists Georges Wolinski and Bernard 'Tignous' Verlhac were killed.

A police official, who spoke on condition of anonymity because of the ongoing investigation, said one of the two police officers killed was one assigned as Charbonnier's bodyguard after prior death threats against him.

Swedish artist Lars Vilks, who has faced death threats after several newspapers published his images of Muhammad, recently presented Charlie Hebdo with his "Gold Dog" prize, said the attack, in spite of security for Charlie Hebdo staffers, shows it is "impossible to guard [them] when it comes to attackers armed to the teeth."


"The publication [of the Muhammed cartoons] happened a few years back in time and one could imagine that it would have been forgotten, but it is not," he told Swedish newspaper Svenska Dagbladet. "There are obviously people who take their time and wait for the right moment."

President Obama condemned the attack and vowed to help France bring the killers to justice.

"France is America's oldest ally, and has stood shoulder to shoulder with the United States in the fight against terrorists who threaten our shared security and the world," Obama said in a statement. "Time and again, the French people have stood up for the universal values that generations of our people have defended. France, and the great city of Paris where this outrageous attack took place, offer the world a timeless example that will endure well beyond the hateful vision of these killers.  We are in touch with French officials and I have directed my Administration to provide any assistance needed to help bring these terrorists to justice."

British Prime Minister David Cameron also condemned the attack and vowed solidarity with France.

"The murders in Paris are sickening," Cameron said. "We stand with the French people in the fight against terror and defending the freedom of the press."


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Вот не могу понять: Что так все удивляются?

Сами же приветствовали переселение этих уродов к себе под бок. Закроете границы, выставите этих дебилов к себе на родину, в Мекку и всё устаканится. А то мол "Как же так?! Мы их кормим, а они нас из калашей..."

The "Gates of Hell" of Derweze

In 1971, Soviet geologists punched through the crust of the Karakum Desert about seven kilometers (four miles) outside of the little village of Derweze, Turkmenistan, population 350. They were searching for natural gas, and did they ever find it.

The drilling rig hit a large natural cavern filled with gas, which promptly collapsed, taking down the rig and possibly some of the geologists as well, though those records remain sealed. A crater approximately 70 meters (230 feet) wide and 20 meters (65.5 feet) deep formed, and began spewing methane into the atmosphere.

Even in that era, before concerns about methane's role in climate change and its potency as a greenhouse gas had hit world consciousness, it seemed like a bad idea to have poisonous gas leaking from the ground in huge quantities near a village. The Soviet scientists decided that their best option was to burn off the gas by lighting the crater on fire. They accomplished that task by tossing a grenade into the hole, anticipating that the fuel would run out within the week. That was more than four decades ago, and the crater is still burning. Its glow is visible from Derweze each night. Fittingly, the name Derweze means "gate" in the Turkmen language, so locals have dubbed the burning crater the "Gate to Hell." Although it is a slow-burning ecological disaster, the crater has also become one of Turkmenistan's few tourist attractions, drawing adventurous souls out into the Karakum, where summer temperatures can hit 50ºC (122ºF) without any help from the Derweze fire.

Despite the Derweze Door to Hell's potential as a tourist site, Turkmen President Kurbanguly Berdymukhamedov issued orders for local officials to find a way to put out the fire, after his 2010 visit to the crater. The president expressed fears that the fire would draw off gas from other nearby drilling sites, damaging Turkmenistan's vital energy exports. The country exports natural gas to Europe, Russia, China, India, and Pakistan. Turkmenistan produced 1.6 trillion cubic feet of natural gas in 2010; its Ministry of Oil, Gas, and Mineral Resources published a goal of reaching 8.1 trillion cubic feet by 2030. Impressive though it looks, the Gates of Hell at Derweze seems unlikely to make much of a dent in those sorts of numbers.